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Log In Sign Up. Olga Budaragina. Petersburg, Kolo, St. Cornelius Fronto, which are reflected in the correspondence with his two pupils — Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. After discussion of literary canons in antiquity, the reading list of Fronto is compared to the most famous canon of Greek and Latin authors compiled by Quintilian at the end of the first century C.

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Cornelius Fronto, and there are two objective reasons for this. The first has to do with the fact that he was not an outstanding Latin author — at least, on the grounds of the preserved literary heritage. His rhetoric studies began at Alexandria in Egypt and were continued in Rome. Fronto was a man of high reputation, and this led to his appointment as a tutor of the two adoptive sons of the Emperor Antoninus Pius — Marcus Aurelius — C.

This puts Cornelius Fronto into a wider context of famous teachers and their royal pupils — such as Aristotle and Alexander the Great or Seneca and Nero. Another birth to his literary heritage was given by an accidental discovery of Angelo Mai — , a famous Italian philologist and paleographer, who in was ordained a cardinal. His hunting for manuscripts began in when he was appointed custodian of the Ambrosian Library in Milan and eight years later of the Vatican Library.

During twenty years he brought back to life more than names of Ancient Greek and Latin authors, which can be compared only to achievements of Italian Humanists. The clamor aroused by the announcement was so great that at the beginning of G. Yearbook protuberances on tree caused by insects. However, this working method badly damages the manuscript because later its pages grow black and become unreadable.

Even the standard modern edition Liepzig, , carried out by M. X, 1, We know that literary lists of the best authors existed since Hellenistic period of time, being especially associated with Alexandrian grammarians Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus. Callimachus of Cyrene who arranged all Greek literary works according to subject and genre. The difference between two types of records is well attested in our sources.

He mentions these extensive catalogues in connection with the fact that he realises the existence of many poets not included in his canon and assumes that some profit may be derived from every author. Before going into a discussion of more specific details we should look at the basic difference between Ancient Greek and Latin canons on the one hand and the Biblical canon on the other. As distinct from Jewish and Christian texts, Classical do not refer to a sacred scripture.

Unfortunately, we know very little about this.

Fronto to Lucius Verus

X, 1, 59 : this personal approach, as we shall see later, is very true as regards Quintilian himself. It seems important to comment here upon two distinctive canon types in the ancient world, which were marked out by Amiel Vardi. In short, they were canons for eternity. The second variety also arose in the Hellenistic Greece in an important centre of Pergamum, which, unlike Alexandrian school, was much interested in rhetoric. These didactic canons appeared in a more practical context, being associated with the compilation of lists of authors who could become models of style for future orators.

The only exception here is the list of the best Latin comic writers provided by a Roman literary critic Volcatius Sedigitus ca B. As was said above, such selections cannot be compared to censorship lists, but the fact is that very few works of ancient authors survived having been not included into canons, though the opposite is also quite true: such lists could not a priori guarantee preservation of texts.

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In the present article I can only briefly touch upon the question of school actual reading lists, which were guided by didactic canons of some types. Our evidence is a scattered one and incomplete, but it seems quite obvious that neither in Greece nor in Rome there was a state institution of any kind willing to control the syllabus.

In such a way Pliny the Younger, who is writing to his junior friend Fuscus Salinator in order to improve his literary skills, advises him about a reading list, which is, according to him, fixed, well known and does not need specification Pliny does not even mention whether he has in mind Greek literature, Latin or both — Epist. VII, 9, 15— At the same time, the school reading lists were likely to differ at some points owing to personal predilections of a teacher, time, and place — as it was observed by Peter J. I, 15, 7. Fabius Quintilianus c. In the tenth part of the textbook Quintilian gives an account of his canon of Ancient Greek and Latin writers, which is the most extensive in the Roman tradition and for this reason cannot be omitted in the discussion.

Two main things should be said about this canon. Secondly, he is highly concerned about making comparison between Romans and Greeks. So it was time to sum up highs and lows and to define merits and deficiencies of Roman literature vs. Quintilian evaluates ancient authors according to genres and keeps to the same order, when talking about Greeks and Romans. The scheme he makes use of is a traditional one, and it is borrowed from the Greek sources65 where poetic genres precede prose works. In prose section he discusses history at first, then oratory and gives the last place to philosophy.

X, 1, 85 and that he excels all other Greek or Roman epics. Yearbook in the list: this lucky man is an epic poet called Germanicus Augustus, but, of course, he is better known as Emperor Domitian 51—96 C. Sometimes the orator comments upon authors not just in the framework of their utility for future orators, but he also tends to share his personal literary judgments68 — this point will be discussed later in connection with Fronto. This means that his teaching program took shape prior to the time when he became a tutor at the imperial palace and that is was intended for a wider circle of followers of his doctrine.

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What kind of community was it and what did Fronto teach? Unfortunately, our evidence is very scarce and unspecific. But what is quite certain is the fact that Fronto was not a professional teacher73 like Quintilian, which means that most probably he did not accept payment74 and that he did not associate himself with any formal educational institution.

Some of these people definitely belonged to a younger generation than the orator, while others were older and not inexperienced.

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IV, 1, 2. Being a highly educated and wealthy man, he made his house the center of an elite community, which consisted not only of his disciples but also of friends with whom he could discuss topics he was interested in. In the history of literature Fronto is associated with most significant trend of the period which can be defined as archaism. In the second century such a tendency was peculiar to the Emperor Hadrian,85 Fronto himself, and later to Aulus Gellius and Apuleius.

At the same time, it is important to bear in mind that nature and origin of this phenomenon are still under dispute. Yearbook two possible ways: it was either a movement with a distinct ideology oriented towards the past or just a matter of personal predilections of a number of literates.


II, 2, 4. So one should date this tendency from the lifetime of Fronto who was sensitive to the turn literature was taking and who became genuinely interested in the use of archaism. Leeman, U. It seems to me that it is better to talk about a literary tendency, which was in the air and which was followed by at least a number of men of letters. Did this interest in early authors come from a purely Roman context, as R. Marache and some other scholars believe? What is, of course, strikingly similar between Greek and Roman culture of the second century is a strongly marked turn to the past,97 but besides formal similarities, there is a gap between Greek and Latin way to treat it.

What they took from the past was an occasional use of rare and obsolete words in order to embellish their works and to give them a touch of variety. What authors did Fronto believe to be a new standard for those who would like to achieve success in the field of rhetoric and what criteria of choice did he apply in his list making?

This is very true in general, but this chronological criterion was not the only one: Fronto, for example, has a very high opinion of the historian Sallust, who was twenty years younger than Cicero. This means that stylistic account was also taken into consideration because Sallust was known for an abundant use of archaism. Yearbook in poetry and prose respectively, he never recommends his pupils to follow one particular model and believes that a speaker should be able to use various styles.

II, 2, 5 having in mind his villa at the Esquiline Hill. He distinguishes, of course, between poets and prose writers, but otherwise in his didactic letters he easily compares and recommends those who wrote epic, tragedy, and comedy: thereby Fronto states, for example, that an epic Ennius was more careful about word selection than a writer of comedies Plautus Ad Marc.

IV, 3, 2. I think that this case resembles that of Virgil where we also have to do with implicit knowledge. At the same time, we know that this ideal was, of course, quite vague, and the phrase in its aphoristic form comes from Cato the Elder, so I tend to believe that Fronto rather borrowed it directly from one of his favorite archaic writers than from Quintilian.

Secondly, Fronto and Quintilian share attitudes towards Cicero and Seneca. Though Fronto acknowledges occasional lucky expressions in Seneca De orat. X, : Cicero is spoken of as an orator, been compared to Demosthenes X, — , and as a philosopher who can rival Plato X, In whole, they mention the name of Cicero and discuss him in more than twenty passages. How is the orator called?

The most official variant of his name M. Tullius occurs in one of the earliest letters to Marcus, which dates ca C. IV, 3, 3. In a consolatory letter written to Marcus in C. This letter is a very rare example when a certain work by Cicero is recommended not just for stylistic purposes but because of it contents and ideas.

In a letter to his former student and future son in law Aufidius Victorinus, which dates presumably from — C. I, 14, 2. I would say that this way to present his work is quite significant of Fronto: on the one hand, he pays a due tribute to his predecessor, but on the other, this shows his high aspirations and implies that his only rival would be the greatest ever Roman orator. Apart from this favorable account of Cicero in general, one can find traces of more detailed discussion and use of his rhetorical art.

Among them is the way of presentation and elaboration of arguments. Between and C. II, 4, 1. I, 2, 6. Buy it Again. Make sure to buy your groceries and daily needs Buy Now. Let us wish you a happy birthday! Date of Birth. Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Year Please fill in a complete birthday Enter a valid birthday. Thank You! Sports Women sports wear Men sportswear Women athlatic shoes Men athlatic shoes. Food Cupboard Confectionery. Which international items are eligible for free shipping as part of the Amazon Global Store?

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M. Cornelius Fronto

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