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Schmeller, T. Wink, eds, pp. Singab, A. Yousef, ML Ashour, M. Wink : The genus Eremophila : An ethnobotanical, biological and phytochemical review. J Pharmacy Pharmacol ogy , Briza; Pretoria, reprinted , , , Wink, M. Wink : Handbuch der Arzneipflanzen. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft; 3 rd ed.

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Sci Tech Pub. Wink , M. Schimmer: Modes of action of defensive secondary metabolites. Wink, ed. In "Alkaloids: Biochemistry, ecology and medicinal applications; M. Wink, eds, pp ; Plenum, New York, Natural Products Communications 3, , John M. Wink M. Molecules , 17 , , The Alkaloids, 43, , Allelopathy- Chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals.

Macias, J. Garcia Galindo, J. Molinillo, H. Cutler eds.

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CRC Press, , Wink , eds, pp. Bioprospecting: The search for bioactive lead structures from Nature. Quax; Medical Plant Biotechnology. From basic research to industrial applications.

Encyclopedia of the Alkaloids

Phytotherapie 5, , Wiley-Vch, Weinheim , pp , Current Drug Metabolism 9, , Indeed, the complete pathway is now assembled into a single E. This supports balancing of SAM recycling pathways as another strategy to improve reticuline production Fig. Additional M-path analysis was performed to search alternative bioproduction pathways that might be improved using DHPAAS or AAS, linking the learning process of enzyme database improvement to new cycles of pathway design.

For example, M-path identified EC 4. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that functional enzyme engineering can be effectively applied to high value bioproduction pathways. Enzyme searches were performed using the M-path web-based version according to the methods of Araki et al. M-path scores are calculated as a Tanimoto co-efficient. For conversion of tyrosine to homovanillic acid CID: , M-path search was performed in original mode. In order to predict the performance of each pathway, parameter values were randomly generated within the set ranges, and Monte—Carlo simulation was carried out according to Supplementary Methods.

L -DOPA was fed as a constant term based on randomly generated parameters. A homemade program was implemented in Python 3. Dimeric homology models of B. Crystal structures of D. Completed structures were analyzed in PyMOL. Duplicate sequences, sequences containing X as an amino acid, and sequences over amino acids in length were all removed. The resulting sequences were aligned and a phylogenetic tree was generated using a split value of 0. After removing partial sequences, clusters were identified from a sequence similarity table generated by MOE.

The full length B. After overnight incubation, cells were pelleted by centrifugation, resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline PBS and lysed by sonication while being cooled over ice.

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A mixture of 1-butanol, acetic acid and H 2 O at a ratio of was used as the mobile phase. Quantifier MRM transitions of Qualifier MRM transitions of MRM transitions of Separation was performed at 0. A final concentration of 1. Dilutions were performed in triplicate. In vitro data were analyzed with Prism 7. H 2 O 2 production was analyzed in 96 well plates using a fluorometric hydrogen peroxide assay kit Sigma.

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Kinetic data was analyzed using the kcat function of Prism 7 with outlier elimination. Cultures containing 3. When culture OD reached 0. Finally, Individual dilutions were analyzed three times for each condition, and in vivo figures with error bars were generated using Prism 7.

Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Fourth Edition, Volume 1; A to Alkaloids

Resulting E. Cells were grown to an OD of 0. SAM was added Filtered culture medium was diluted in acetonitrile with camphor sulfonic acid and ascorbate for quantification of dopamine, DHPAA, THP, and reticuline. In vivo figures with error bars were generated using Prism 7. After reaching OD 0. Diluted samples of culture medium were analyzed with three independent measurements for each condition.

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Data supporting the findings of this work are available within the paper and its Supplementary Information files. A reporting summary for this Article is available as a Supplementary Information file. The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The source data underlying Figs. In the original version of this Article, the abbreviation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde synthase presented in the first paragraph of the Discussion section was given incorrectly as DYPAA. Liu, X. Engineering yeast for the production of breviscapine by genomic analysis and synthetic biology approaches.

Mori, Y. Designing artificial metabolic pathways, construction of target enzymes, and analysis of their function. King, J.

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  8. Yim, H. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for direct production of 1,4-butanediol. Walther, T. Construction of a synthetic metabolic pathway for biosynthesis of the non-natural methionine precursor 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. Narcross, L. Microbial factories for the production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.

    Trends Biotechnol. Galanie, S. Complete biosynthesiss of opioids in yeast. Science , — DeLoache, W. An enzyme-coupled biosensor enables S -reticuline production in yeast from glucose. Nakagawa, A. R , S -Tetrahydropapaveroline production by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli. Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli. Harkcom, W. Molecular docking of inhibitors into monoamine oxidase B. Murooka, Y. Distribution of membrane-bound monoamine oxidase in bacteria.

    Araki, M. M-path: a compass for navigating potential metabolic pathways. Bioinformatics 31 , — Placzek, S. Nucleic Acids Res. Kanehisa, M. KEGG as a reference resource for gene and protein annotation. Gerlt, J. Tools and strategies for discovering novel enzymes and metabolic pathways. Kaminaga, Y. Plant phenylacetaldehyde synthase is a bifunctional homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes phenylalanine decarboxylation and oxidation.

    Torrens-Spence, M. Description The Encyclopedia gives an overall view of industrial analytical chemistry and a comprehensive coverage of the methods and techniques used in industrial laboratories throughout the world for the analysis and evaluation of chemical products. About the Author. Table of Contents.