Recent examples of enzymatic biosensors developed for assessment of fish and seafood quality and freshness. Schematic diagram of the reactions involved in the quantification of hypoxanthine as an indicator of fish freshness. The methodologies rely on the determination of hydrogen peroxide formed in consecutive reactions catalyzed by xanthine oxidase solid lines and eventually also uricase dashed lines , combined with a platinum-based electrode. Schematic diagrams of the reactions involved in the quantification of biogenic amines. B Quantification of tyrosine through oxidation with tyrosinase to dopaquinone and reduction of the latter to dopamine on the surface of a carbon electrode Apetrei and Apetrei, Fish and seafood industries have a key role as providers of healthy food.
As an outcome of the increasing public awareness of the significance of a balanced diet to health, the demand for fish and seafood concomitantly grows, a trend that is foreseen to continue in the near future. Given the perishable nature of the products and their complexity, their effective processing and monitoring is a challenging task.
Physical and chemical processes have been often the mainstay, with a minor contribution of endogenous enzymes. Advances in enzyme technology are turning the tide, as a result of a growing insight into the mechanisms of enzyme action, access to marine sources of enzymes, and improvements in heterologous expression, coupled with the need to minimize wastes and add value to byproducts that typically are often discarded.
Within this, the enzymatic approach contributes significantly to overcome the environmental impact of traditional processes, thereby contributing to the implementation of sustainable and cost-effective processes. Moreover, enzyme technology can also contribute to the quality control of fish and seafood goods. It is a fact that the role of enzymes in fish and seafood industries lags behind other fields in food processing. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Bioeng Biotechnol v. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. Published online Jul 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Specialty section: This article was submitted to Marine Biotechnology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. Received Apr 18; Accepted Jun The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. Keywords: biocatalysis, biosensors, proteases, transglutaminases, lipases, oxidases. Introduction Enzymes are key tools in biotechnology and related areas because of their catalytic nature Fraatz et al.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Enzyme Sources When considering the enzymatic processing of fish and seafood, the role of both endogenous and added enzymes has to be considered. Deskinning and Descaling Deskinning involves the removal of fish skin without causing damage to the flesh, a process currently performed by rough mechanical procedures, imparting considerable risk of damaging the flesh and producing excessive waste.
Fish Protein Hydrolyzate One of the major established applications is the production of fish protein hydrolyzates FPHs. Table 1 Recent developments on the production of FPHs with application in food and feed. D h was maximized with an enzyme concentration of 8. The hydrolyzate contained Dey and Dora b Optimization of the production of carotenoids and protein hydrolyzate with antioxidative properties through RSM applied to the hydrolysis of shrimp waste using Alcalase.
Optimal temperature, enzyme concentration, and time of incubation depended on the targeted product n. Sowmya et al. The final product had a high protein content Utomo et al. Fish Sauce Fish sauce is the outcome of enzyme-solubilized and digested fish protein. Ripening Proteases are also involved in the ripening of salted fish such as herring, anchovy, cod, and salmon, a complex biochemical process mostly characterized by the degradation of muscle proteins with endogenous enzymes, with increase of peptides and free amino acids.
Table 2 Examples of recent application of MTGs in fish and seafood processing. Treatment of extruded fish feed with a commercial MTGase to improve the physical quality of the product Wolska et al. These have been assayed a. Figure 2. Table 3 Recent examples of enzymatic biosensors developed for assessment of fish and seafood quality and freshness.
Negligible interference from ascorbic and uric acid, sodium benzoate, and glucose. Dervisevic et al. Xanthine detection as referred for Dervisevic et al. Bas et al. Tested in fish samples with HX concentrations within 2. The biosensor retained Tested in fish samples with HX concentrations within 0. The decay in biosensor response did not exceed Good reproducibility was observed for tyramine concentrations within Figure 3. Figure 4. Conclusion Fish and seafood industries have a key role as providers of healthy food. Conflict of Interest Statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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